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The Sound Emission Ordinance (02-9, Section 15-21 of the City Code) identifies: 15-21.2.(b) A person may not cause or permit noise levels emanating from construction or demolition site activities which exceed: (1) Ninety (90) dBA during daytime hours (2) The levels specified in the Allowable Noise Level Table during nighttime hours. Daytime Hours as being between the times of 7 a.m. to 10 p.m., local time.
Noise Levels from construction/demolition Cannot Exceed 90dBA. Nighttime hours are between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m., local time. Noise levels Cannot Exceed the following:
Complaints: For complaints relating to Construction/Demolition Noise Emission, the Police Department has monitoring equipment. Call Lieutenant Brian Brown at 301-600-2135.
The city maintains a list on the Licensed Contractor page.
Other equally important principles in containment labs are Biosafety, Biosurety and proper personnel training.
There are four designated levels of containment, each with increasing levels of control.
http://orf.od.nih.gov/ Glossary of definitions: http://www.frontlinefoundation.org/glossary
• BSL-2 labs are used to study microbes that can infect humans if accidentally inhaled, swallowed, or enter the skin, but don’t usually cause serious disease. All of these diseases can be cured because there is an existing vaccine or treatment. Safety measures include the use of gloves and eyewear as well as hand washing sinks and waste decontamination equipment like autoclaves (sophisticated pressure cookers).
• BSL-3 labs are used to study microbes that can be transmitted through the air and can cause serious disease or death if untreated. These diseases are treatable with existing vaccines or treatments. Researchers perform lab work in a gas-tight room within boxes that filter the air. Other safety features include clothing decontamination, sealed windows and rooms, and specialized ventilation systems with HEPA filters. Most facilities and Universities in the US with infectious disease research programs have BSL-3 labs, and many hospitals have BSL-3 areas for isolating patients with highly contagious diseases. BSL-3 labs work with pathogens such as anthrax and plague. Access to BSL-3 labs is tightly controlled.
• BSL-4 labs are used to study microbes that can cause serious illness or death and for which no vaccine or therapy is commonly available. Lab personnel are required to wear full-body sealed suits with their own air supply and to shower when exiting the facility. The labs incorporate all BSL 3 features and occupy safe, isolated zones within a larger building. Those zones are at negative atmospheric pressure to keep all air within the lab and filtered. BSL-4 labs work with pathogens such as ebola and other hemorrhagic fevers. Access to BSL-4 labs is tightly controlled, physically and procedurally.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx www.selectagents.gov www.cdc.gov www.usda.gov http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/index.htm http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/biological_warfare/BW-ch22.pdf http://www.nems.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx
Inside Fort Detrick are laboratory facilities operated by:
• Army (US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, or USAMRIID),
• Dept. of Homeland Security (National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, or NBACC),
• National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Disease or NIAID (Integrated Research Facility, or IRF), and
• US Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit)
As of December 2011, the existing USAMRIID lab, the USDA labs and portions of the Homeland Security labs are in operation.
The portion of the Homeland security laboratory that is operational was certified by Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), as of September 2011. The remaining portion is anticipated to be certified and become operational in late 2012.
The NIAID facility is under construction, and is expected to be certified and become operational in 2012-13.
Another Army laboratory, the Medical Countermeasures Medical Countermeasures Test & Evaluation (MCT&E) facility is still in the planning stages.
A new USAMRIID facility is under construction, with estimated completion reported for 2015.
Outside of Fort Detrick, there are two privately-operated containment (biosafety level 3, or ‘BSL-3’) labs in Frederick County. The State of Maryland holds information on the locations and operators of these labs.
Maryland law defines who this information can be shared with and that includes emergency planners and responders but not the general public. The State of Maryland requires any individual with access to the most dangerous microbes to be registered with the Maryland Biological Agent Registry program.
www.cdc.gov Annotated Code of Maryland, Title 10 Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Subtitle 10 Laboratories, Chapter 11, Biological Agents Registry Program. http://dhmh.state.md.us/labs/html/about/leprac.html www.selectagents.gov www.usda.gov http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13265 www.dhmh.state.md.us/labs/html/terrorism/BAR_Policy_(2008).pdf http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=19-20-00-00 http://www.bnbi.org/index.html
Each of the labs comprising the NIBC are operated and maintained independently. The US Army Garrison at Fort Detrick is responsible for operation and maintenance of infrastructure for the NIBC, including power, water, sewer, post security, waste disposal, and emergency response.
The labs have reported that the types of microbes/pathogens and toxins being worked on at any one time changes based on what research is active. They have also reported that there are no programs designed for large scale production; only a small number of microbes/pathogens are needed to conduct the research conducted at these labs.
Source:Presentation by USAMRIID to the Containment Lab Community Advisory Committee, 2012
The US Government now tightly controls who has access to Select Agents via each laboratory’s Personnel Reliability Program and the National Select Agent Registry.
The Federal Government empowered the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to ensure compliance with internationally-recognized standard practices for biological safety & security; for safety & security practices surrounding Select Agents, it is a Federal crime to deviate from these standards punishable by fines and jail time.
Each of the labs reports that their research is defensive and/or focused on development of new vaccines, antibiotics, antivirals, and other therapeutics and diagnostic tests. Each of the labs reports developing modeling systems such as aerosolizing small amounts of pathogens in sealed biosafety cabinets in order to test the efficacy of countermeasures and treatments.
However, "weaponized" agents may be present in some research laboratories at Fort Detrick. The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) at Fort Detrick may receive evidence from a bio-crime or terrorist attack including ‘weaponized’ microbes /pathogens, and conduct diagnostic tests to detect the microbes, or in the pursuit of medicines and vaccines.The Army lab (US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease, or USAMRIID), reports that none of the research they do is classified at this time. The Homeland Security Lab (NBACC) reports that 10 to 15% of its research is classified, as of December 2011.
Two private Biosafety level 3 research laboratories in Frederick County are involved in research and development of pharmaceutical drugs (vaccines and treatments) work on non-classified research with select agents (see “What is a select agent?”). Information about these laboratories is not open to the public for security reasons, as specified in the Maryland Biological Agent Registry regulations.
Private BSL-3 laboratories may be protected by various laws around trade secrets and patent laws but are still subject to Federal and State regulations regarding safe handling of infectious diseases, registration of workers with access to dangerous microbes, and inspection of their facilities by Federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, or CDC, and the US Department of Agriculture, or USDA).
Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Zajtchuk R, Bellamy RF, (Eds.) 1997. Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Lenhart M, Lounsbury DE, Martin JW (Eds.) 2007. For a summary of the history of biowarfare and bioterrorism, a good online resource includes the Arizona Department of Health Services’ Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and Response at the link below: http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/bthistor2.htm http://www.nems.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx http://bnbi.org/ http://www.ars.usda.gov/AboutUs/AboutUs.htm?modecode=19-20-00-00 http://www.usamriid.army.mil/ Maryland Biological Agent Registry regulations: http://dhmh.maryland.gov/labs/html/emergency_prep.html
Also at Fort Detrick, the Department of Homeland Security’s National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) has been established to be “a national resource to understand the scientific basis of the risks posed by biological threats and to attribute their use in bioterrorism or biocrime events." The President and Congress charged NBACC with “research and development of technologies to protect the American public from bioterrorism.”
Also at Fort Detrick, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, part of the National Institutes of Health) has the Integrated Research Facility (IRF) including BSL-2, -3, and -4 labs. The mission of the NIAID IRF is "to manage, coordinate, and facilitate the conduct of emerging infectious disease and biodefense research to develop vaccines, countermeasures, and improved medical outcomes for patients." The NIAID IRF was created "to carry out biodefense research needed to understand the clinical disease processes which correlate with the severity of microbial-induced disease."
Also at Fort Detrick, the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) maintains a research greenhouse operated at BSL-3 in order to conduct important research on microbes that can kill crops. Without the ability to test possible treatments safely, and to examine the processes that cause plant disease, no treatments will become available.
These laboratories are all located at Fort Detrick in order for their researchers to work closely together with the other experts in biodefense and emerging infectious diseases.
http://www.usamriid.army.mil http://www.bnbi.org http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx http://www.nems.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx http://www.ars.usda.gov/AboutUs/AboutUs.htm?modecode=19-20-00-00 Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Zajtchuk R, Bellamy RF, (Eds.) 1997. Textbook of Military Medicine: Part 1, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, USA. Lenhart M, Lounsbury DE, Martin JW (Eds.) 2007.
The National Institutes of Health operates the Integrated Research Facility (IRF), while the Army operates the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). T
The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is managed and operated for the Department of Homeland Security as a Federally-Funded Research and Development Center by the Battelle National Biodefense Instittue, LLC.
Each of the labs employs contract employees from a variety of sources including Batelle Memorial Institute, SAIC, and others.
These include the Integrated Research Facility (IRF, the National Institutes of Health lab), the US Department of Agriculture research lab, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), and the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC).
Two privately-owned Bio-safety level 3 laboratories also operate in Frederick County and are registered with the State of Maryland.
http://www.usamriid.army.mil http://www.bnbi.org http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx http://nems.nih.gov/home/frederick.cfm http://www.ars.usda.gov/AboutUs/AboutUs.htm?modecode=19-20-00-00
Other research facilities were developed at Fort Detrick to capitalize on the facilities, expertise, and knowledge developed there through USAMRIID. The security of the site, and the ability for experts to collaborate easily in a secure and safe area, are reported as some of the reasons for the labs to be located in close proximity.
http://www.usamriid.army.mil http://www.bnbi.org http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/PublicMedia/pages/faqs.aspx http://nems.nih.gov/home/frederick.cfm http://www.ars.usda.gov/AboutUs/AboutUs.htm?modecode=19-20-00-00 Department of Health Services’ Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and Response at the link below: http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/bthistor2.htm
• Fomites: Inanimate objects capable of carrying microbes in a way that allows them to continue to be infectious – these can include clothing, stethoscopes, doorknobs, writing instruments, table tops, etc. Lab workers wear surgical scrubs and special suits that are decontaminated after use, and nothing leaves a containment lab without it being autoclaved or treated with microbicidal chemicals.
• Through the air: Microbes can survive the harsh environment outside a warm, moist body for a little while in the droplets formed when we cough or sneeze, and a few, like anthrax, can form tough outer coatings to form ‘spores’ that can survive outside the host for years. Air filters in labs and ultraviolet lights eliminate microbes before they escape. Containment labs are maintained at negative pressure so that air only flows inward through HEPA filters, thus preventing any lab air from ever escaping into another area.
• Insects: Mosquitos are common carriers [‘vectors’] of parasites like malaria, while fleas can pick up plague bacteria from infected rodents and transmit them to humans. Ticks transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease between deer and human. Containment labs are maintained at negative pressure so that air only flows inward through HEPA filters – this also prevents a flying insect like a mosquito or fly from exiting a room. Doors of containment labs also have seals.
• Water/food: Foodborne illness can be caused by poor manufacturing processes, poor food preparation practices, drinking from river or lake water contaminated by untreated waste, and even swimming pools and water parks. Containment labs do have sinks where water runs into pipes into huge steel tanks where the liquids mingle with powerful chemicals and are also ‘pressure cooked’ for hours before being allowed to exit the facility.
• By infecting a lab worker: Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) can occur if a lab worker accidentally infects himself. Because lab workers are so well protected by multiple gloves and respiratory protection and special suits, the vast majority of these LAIs occur from accidental needle stick injuries. Any lab worker who accidentally pokes himself or herself is not immediately infectious: it takes time for any microbe to replicate inside the body and cause disease, so there is time for the worker to leave the lab and begin the appropriate treatment. If the situation warrants, the worker may be quarantined during treatment. Sometimes an infected worker has not been aware of the exposure and returns to the community. Lab workers are trained to immediately report any suspicious illness.
• By malevolent intent: A worker intent on removing a pathogen from the laboratory could possibly do so, as the FBI reports occurred in 2001 during the Anthrax letter attacks. In order to address this concern a complex system of personnel reliability, security, and training has been put in place, along with regulations and security cameras, designed to prevent such an occurrence.
Each of the containment labs in Frederick County operate under mandated biological safety & security regimes defined by a variety of internationally-accepted standards. These standards have been designed to prevent spread of microbes including the accidental or intentional release from a containment lab.
The standards are laid out in detail in a publication called “Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories” (see reference). These practices are in agreement with the World Health Organization’s “Laboratory Biosafety Manual” (see reference). Federally-appointed responsibility for enforcing and monitoring lab compliance with these regulations is given to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
For labs using the most dangerous microbes, additional security measures are mandated by the Federal and State governments. Laboratory practices are scrutinized and any person with access to the microbes is required to be actively cleared in a Personnel Reliability Program, and register with the State of Maryland. These measures are taken to ensure that the individuals with access are trustworthy.
All of Fort Detrick’s National Interagency Biodefense Campus (NIBC) labs have "biosurety" programs in place that focus on four main areas:
1) safety – biosafety involves enforcing proper procedures for handling dangerous pathogens;
2) security – biosecurity includes physical systems like locks and alarms, guards, and procedures to prevent theft or unauthorized activities;
3) inventory and access – microbes are inventoried and access is controlled; and
4) Personnel reliability – starting in the middle of the last decade, people with access to dangerous microbes must undergo extensive background checks and psychological evaluations, as well as frequent monitoring, to ensure they meet very high standards for reliability and trustworthiness. The Federal Government mandates this for the most dangerous organisms (all BSL-4 microbes and many BSL-3 microbes) as part of a Personnel Reliability Program.
The privately-owned laboratories are subject to the same Federal laws regulating access and handling to the most dangerous organisms. The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have jurisdiction and conduct inspections and, if necessary, can institute a cessation of operations if the situation warrants such action.
In addition, the State of Maryland maintains a Registry of all individuals who are authorized to work with the most dangerous microbes. This list of individuals is not available to the public in order to protect the individuals.
Annotated Code of Maryland, Title 10 Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Subtitle 10 Laboratories, Chapter 11, Biological Agents Registry Program. http://dhmh.maryland.gov/labs/html/emergency_prep.html www.cdc.gov www.selectagents.gov Safety and informational presentations by Army to CLCAC: http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentView.aspx?DID=1089 http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentView.aspx?DID=1090 http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentView.aspx?DID=1088 http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/microbes/understanding/transmission/Pages/transmissionWays.aspx http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/index.htm www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/biosafety/Biosafety7.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/index.htm http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/biosafety/Biosafety7.pdf http://dhmh.state.md.us/labs/html/about/leprac.html
www.cdc.gov www.usda.gov Annotated Code of Maryland, Title 10 Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Subtitle 10 Laboratories, Chapter 11, Biological Agents Registry Program. http://dhmh.state.md.us/labs/html/about/leprac.html www.selectagents.gov
All labs working with the most dangerous microbes are regulated by the CDC Select Agent Program, which regulates the possession, use and transfer of biological agents and toxins that pose serious public health threat. The Program promotes lab safety and security by:
1) Developing, implementing, and enforcing select agent regulations2) Providing guidance to the regulated community, and3) Inspecting facilities working with select agents.
The Program works with the USDA and the Department of Justice. The CDC and the USDA maintain the National Select Agent Registry which details regulations, guidance documents, FAQs, links, and other information.
The presentations during this forum on October 10, 2017 served to support the purpose of the CLCAC By-laws/mission (see http://www.cityoffrederick.com/DocumentCenter/View/5396). In accordance with our By-Laws published October 13, 2015, “The Containment Laboratory Community Advisory Committee (“Committee”) serves to foster and facilitate two-way communication between the Frederick County community and the operators of the high and maximum containment laboratories (Biosafety Level 3 and 4) operating at Fort Detrick and elsewhere in Frederick County. The Committee shall seek information about issues of public concern and ways to address those concerns, including the implications of laboratory operations on the safety and health of the community. The Committee shall advise and make recommendations on behalf of the public regarding opportunities to improve any laboratory-related matters that could impact public safety and health.”
At this forum, Frederick’s Emergency Management, First Responder and Public Health officials talked about what happens in case of an emergency involving pathogens from the laboratories located at Fort Detrick or private labs in the county. Each laboratory facility at Fort Detrick has an Emergency Response Plan that is shared with Frederick County Emergency Management officials. At this October 10, 2017 CLCAC meeting, Emergency Response Plans were addressed and discussed by the CLCAC and Emergency Response personnel. A video transcript of these discussions can be viewed at http://cityoffrederick.granicus.com/MediaPlayer.php?view_id=12&clip_id=3430.
The CLCAC, emergency responders and Health Officials presented the facts regarding Fort Detrick potential risks and how these potential risks would be managed. These policies and procedures are robust, and serve to mitigate any potential risks to the Frederick community by the Fort Detrick laboratories.
At Department of Defense facilities, a biological mishap is defined as an event in which the failure of laboratory facilities, equipment, or procedures appropriate to the level of potential pathogenicity of an infectious agent or toxin may allow the unintentional, potential exposure of humans or the laboratory environment to that agent. All mishaps involving biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) will be reported to CDC or APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the USDA and will be reported concurrently to the first general officer (or equivalent) in the mishap reporting chain. If the facility is a tenant on an installation, the mishap will also be reported to the garrison commander. The first general officer (or equivalent) receiving the report will forward it up the chain of command to the Office of the Director of Army Safety (ODASAF). Upon discovery of a non-BSAT occupational exposure or release of a non-BSAT outside of the laboratory, an individual or entity must immediately notify the first general officer (or equivalent) in the mishap reporting chain (DA PAM 395-69). There is no information or policy regarding release of any of the mishap information to the community.
The risk of any potential release of biological material(s) to the community is low to negligible. There is an extreme amount of redundancy of safety equipment at these facilities that would preclude any potential release of material(s). For instance, the reference Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories [BMBL] (which is an advisory document recommending best practices for the safe conduct of work in biomedical and clinical laboratories from a biosafety perspective, and is not intended as a regulatory document) states that all procedures involving the manipulation of infectious materials must be conducted within a biological safety cabinet or other physical containment devices. Thus, a barrier is placed at the immediate level of a hazard. In addition, a ducted air ventilation system is required. This system must provide sustained directional airflow by drawing air into the laboratory from “clean” areas toward “potentially contaminated” areas. The laboratory shall be designed such that under failure conditions the airflow will not be reversed. The BMBL can be accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/bmbl.pdf.
For biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories (appropriate for agents with a known potential for aerosol transmission, for agents that may cause serious and potentially lethal infections and that are indigenous or exotic in origin), a ducted air ventilation system is required. This system must provide sustained directional airflow by drawing air into the laboratory from “clean” areas toward “potentially contaminated” areas. The laboratory shall be designed such that under failure conditions the airflow will not be reversed (redundancy). The laboratory exhaust air must not re-circulate to any other area of the building and the laboratory building exhaust air should be dispersed away from occupied areas and from building air intake locations or the exhaust air must be filtered through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. A HEPA filter is defined by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) standard adopted by most American industries to remove at least 99.97% of airborne particles 0.3 micrometers (µm) in diameter.
To the best of our knowledge, all air exhausted from biosafety level 3 laboratories at Fort Detrick is HEPA-filtered. Notably this level of engineering exceeds the recommendations of the BMBL publication for BSL-3 laboratories.
For biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories (appropriate for dangerous and exotic agents that pose a high individual risk of aerosol-transmitted laboratory infections and life-threatening disease that is frequently fatal, for which there are no vaccines or treatments, or a related agent with unknown risk of transmission). There are two models for BSL-4 laboratories: (1) A cabinet laboratory - manipulation of agents must be performed in a Class III BSC (the Class III cabinet must have a HEPA filter on the supply air intake and two HEPA filters in series on the exhaust outlet of the unit); and (2) a suit laboratory - personnel must wear a positive pressure supplied air protective suit (the suit is supplied with HEPA-filtered breathing air). In addition to the criteria listed for BSL-3 laboratories, all exhaust air from both the suit laboratory and cabinet laboratory, decontamination shower and fumigation or decontamination chambers must pass through two HEPA filters in series before discharge to the outside environment.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) defines a maximum credible event (MCE) as a hypothesized worst-case accidental explosion, fire, or agent release that is likely to occur from a given quantity and disposition of explosives, chemical agents, or reactive material. One example of an MCE at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) follows:
“The first MCE scenario for a BSL-3 laboratory accident occurs during the processing of 1 liter (0.26 gallons) of slurry containing Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, to prepare an experimental vaccine. The infective dose for this species of bacteria ranges from 1 to 10 organisms. During this process, a centrifuge rotor holding six 250-milliliter (8.45-fluid ounce) polypropylene centrifuge tubes is fitted with O-rings; each tube contains 165 milliliters (5.58 fluid ounces) of slurry. The 990 milliliters (33.46 fluid ounces) of slurry contain a total of 9.9 x 1012 (9.9 trillion) human infective doses (HID50) of the organism. One HID50 is the dose that infects 50% of exposed humans. In this scenario, a laboratory worker fails to use rubber O-rings to seal the centrifuge tubes and fails to properly tighten the safety centrifuge caps designed to prevent leakage into the centrifuge compartment that houses the rotor. All six tubes spill slurry into the rotor cups, and some of this slurry leaks into the rotor compartment, which is not sealed against the release of organisms in a small-particle aerosol. It is assumed that 10% of the slurry spills, of which 1% leaks into the rotor compartment, where 0.1% of the leakage is aerosolized. It is further assumed that 90% of the aerosol settles as liquid droplets inside the chamber. Thus, 10% (spilled from tubes) x 1% (leaked from rotor cups) x 0.1% (aerosolized) x 10% (did not settle out) = 0.00001% of the original slurry placed in the centrifuge tubes for processing would be released into the room. The most serious consequence of this laboratory accident would be the release of enough concentrated aerosol to override the air filter system, allowing the subsequent release of a significant number of infectious doses into the surrounding community. Following the assumptions above, 9.9 x 105 HID50 are presented to the filter. Further assuming that the air filter system is 95% efficient, approximately 5 x 104 HID50 (5% not removed x 9.9 x 105 HID50) would be released to the atmosphere from the exhaust stack. Using a simple Gaussian plume dispersion model in HPAC [Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) modeling system developed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency] with weather condition parameters of USAMRIID for each calendar month, the worst-case total exposure of a person breathing ground-level air would be less than 1 HID50 of Coxiella burnetii at a distance less than 2 meters (6.56 feet) from the stack. This concentration of organisms would pose no risk to human health.”
Additional scenarios of a maximum credible event are contained within the document Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement - Chemical Biological Defense Program, March 2006, Appendix C, Hazard Analyses, and can be viewed at
Army Regulation (AR) 385-10, The Army Safety Program, Chapter 20, Infectious Agents and Toxins (see http://www.wsmr.army.mil/gar/dir/Safety/Documents/References/r385-10.pdf) establishes Department of the Army safety policies and procedures for the use, handling, transportation, transfer, storage, and disposal of infectious agents and toxins (IAT) rated at BSL-2 and above used in microbiological activities in permanent or temporary clinical laboratories, biomedical and biological research settings, microbiology teaching laboratories, and veterinary reference laboratories. These policies and procedures apply to all U.S. Army activities and facilities in which IAT are used, produced, stored, handled, transported, transferred, or disposed.
Chapter 19 of AR 385-10 describes Emergency Planning and Response. The facility emergency response plan will be reviewed at least annually and, as necessary, be amended to keep current with new or changing facility conditions or information. Senior commanders and local, regional, State, and Federal emergency support and coordinating agencies (for example, law enforcement, fire departments, and health departments) will be informed of CBRN defense activities at Government-owned facilities. Agreements will be made with these agencies to identify and ensure the availability of support, including equipment and training, necessary to provide effective emergency response and to ensure compliance with applicable statutes and regulations and the facility emergency response plan. Agreements must be in writing and agreements will be reviewed annually or upon a change in operations that could affect existing emergency response plans and updated as necessary. The emergency response plan will be compatible and integrated with the disaster, fire, and/or emergency response plans of the installation and local, state, and Federal agencies. An employee alarm system will be installed according to 29 CFR 1910.165 (see https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=9819) to notify employees of any necessary emergency action. Emergency response plans will be exercised prior to adoption and at least annually thereafter to ensure the adequacy of response plans and responder training, responder familiarity with response procedures and equipment, the adequacy of support agreements, and the availability and adequacy of emergency equipment and medical support. Emergency response drills and exercises for biological operations will be conducted according to Department of the Army Pamphlet (DA PAM) 385–69 (see http://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/p385_69.pdf).
DA PAM 385–69, Safety Standards for Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, Chapter 11, Emergency Planning and Response, states that all IAT biological laboratories will establish specific emergency plans for their facilities. Plans will include liaison through proper channels with local emergency groups and with community officials. These plans will include both the building and the individual laboratories.
Therefore, based on these documents, there is in-place a comprehensive Fort Detrick-Frederick County notification protocol if an incident results in release of an IAT into the Frederick community
To the best of our knowledge, there is no permanent real-time meteorological monitoring station on the Fort Detrick campus which would serve to detect an event that would warrant evacuation of any surrounding areas. Realistically, it is assumed that the decision not to monitor is not only risk-based, but also considering the fact of extensive redundancy in facility infrastructure (filtration of BSL-3 laboratory exhaust air) and research operation policies and procedures. As stated in the BMBL and practiced, all procedures involving the manipulation of infectious or toxin-containing materials must be conducted within a biological safety cabinet or other physical containment devices.
There is a profound distinction between biological material(s) and nuclear material(s). The former are replicating entities (with the exception of toxins) and when introduced into susceptible hosts usually reveal their variable effects after 24 hours. Realistically, evidence of exposure is usually seen in days or weeks (this period is known as the incubation period). For certain pathogens and toxins, real-time detection and identification is not immediate - the minimum time may be 30 minutes. On the contrary, nuclear material(s) is non-replicating and may reveal their effects in a susceptible host immediately upon exposure of the host to the nuclear material. There are methodologies available to detect nuclear material(s) in real-time, unlike for biological material(s).
Grass and weeds must be maintained at 10 inches or less.
A person may have up to four (4) yard sales per calendar year each lasting a maximum of 3 consecutive days. A permit is required for any additional yard sales.
Yes, you may store 1 unlicensed vehicle on your property provided it is covered with a fitted car cover (not a tarp) and is in good condition.
No, city code strictly prohibits any signs from being posted on utility poles.
Property owners must remove snow and ice from all sidewalks abutting their property within 12 hours after snow has ceased falling.
It is the property owner’s responsibility. Trees and shrubs must be trimmed so that limbs shall not be closer than nine (9) feet above the sidewalk and fifteen (15) feet above any street or alley.
Home occupations are permitted as a conditional use in all R, D, NC, and GC zoning districts provided all use requirements are met. For more information contact Planning at 301-600-1499.
Building permits are required for construction or erection of a structure; construction of an addition to a structure; altering, modifying, or improving a structure; demolishing, moving, or removing a structure; or making a change of use and occupancy classification. If you are unsure if a permit is required, please contact the Building/Permit Department at 301-600-3808.
A person may not park a motor vehicle on grass, mulch, or any other surface that is not a paved area.
No, basketball hoops are prohibited from being placed in the public right of way.
Yes, every owner or operator of any building who rents or leases one or more dwelling units must supply heat to the occupants of those units from Oct 1st to May 1st.
Maryland Landlord tenant law prohibits retaliation by a landlord against a tenant. For more information, contact the Frederick County District Court at 301-600-2000.
Maximum occupancy is determined by assessing the square footage of sleeping areas, minimum room sizes, and occupancy loads.
Applications can besubmitted online, sent by email, mail or hand delivered to City Hall.
Funds areavailable after July 1, 2018 and will be distributed after a letter ofagreement between the City and the organization is completed.
Yes, it isrecommended a separate application be submitted for each specific type.
Yes, the Citymay award partial amounts.
Yes, thescorecard will be available for review.
A Grading/Public Improvements Permit is required in either of the following cases:
If your home was purchased after approximately 1980, check your settlement package for a house location survey or contact your mortgage company to obtain a copy. The Land Records at the Frederick County Courthouse contains all deeds, homeowner's association covenants and property plats. Contact the Frederick County Land Records at 301-600-1980.
Contact the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Department for maps.
RESIDENTIAL ALARM S (increment by $25 for each false alarm beginning with the third false alarm)Number of False Alarms Fine Imposed1 02 03 $254 $505 $756 $1007 $1258 $1509 $17510 $200
Otherwise, please contact the Consumer Protection Division of the Maryland Attorney General’s Office. The nearest office is located at 44 North Potomac St., Ste. 104, Hagerstown, MD 21740 – 301-791-4780. This office can be reached locally every 2nd and 4th Thursday at 301-600-1071 from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Consumer Protection Division
Eligible Dwelling Units: Persons eligible for residential parking permits (metered or non-metered) must live on one of the following streets within the bounded area--
East and West Church Street
East Church Street (326-342 only)
East and West Second Street
East and West Third Street
Court Street between West All Saints Street to Third Street
Market Space Lot
500 Block of Elm Street
Water Street between East Patrick and Carroll Creek
East and West All Saints Street
1st block of South Market Street to 300 block of North Market Street
East and West Patrick Street
100 block of East Patrick Street to 1st block of West Patrick Street
Northside of West Second Street from Memorial Parkway west to College Avenue
300 Block of North Bentz Street
22 South Bentz Street to 46 South Bentz Street, even side only
Chapel Alley between 3rd and 4th Streets
The Southside of Carroll Parkway between Bentz Street and College Avenue
The Eastside of College Avenue between Carroll Parkway and West Patrick Street
200 block of South Carroll Street, east side only
Residential Metered Parking Permit: Each dwelling unit within the bounded area that is located on a street block with parking meters in front of the dwelling may apply for and obtain up to two (2) Residential Metered Parking Permits. The first Residential Metered Parking Permit is provided at a charge of Fifty ($50) dollars and the second Residential Metered Parking Permit is available at a cost of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00). The holder of a Residential Metered Parking Permit may park on any of the streets listed. Residents living on streets with parking meters in front of their dwelling may obtain non-metered parking permits in lieu of metered parking permits. In either case, each dwelling is restricted to a total of two (2) permits. Credit cards are accepted for payment of residential permits. Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit: 1. Each dwelling unit within the bounded area that is located on a street block where no parking meters are present in front of the dwellings may apply for and obtain up to two (2) Residential Non-Metered Parking Permits. The first Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is provided free of charge and the second Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is available at a cost of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00).
2. Each dwelling unit within the bounded area that is located on a street block with parking meters in front of the dwelling may apply for and obtain up to two (2) Residential Non-Metered Parking Permits. The first Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is provided free of charge and the second Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit is available at a cost of One Hundred Dollars ($100.00).
3. The holder of a Residential Non-Metered Parking Permit may park on any of the streets listed that are not controlled by a parking meter. Residential Non-Metered Parking Permits are prohibited fromparking at spaces controlled by parking meters. Parking with Residential Parking Permits (metered and non-metered): Subject to the restrictions. The holder of a Residential Parking Permit (metered and non-metered) may park on the streets in the following areas within the bounded areas listed:
Metered: 100 block West Church to 100 East Church 100 block West 2nd to 1st block East 2nd 1st block West 3rd to 1st block East 3rd 200 block of North Court Record Street/Council Street Market Space North side of East All Saints Street
Non-Metered: 200 block East Church Street 326-342 block East Church Street 200 block West 2nd Street (north side only) 100, 200 block East 2nd Street 100 block West 3rd Street 100, 200 block East 3rd Street 200, 300 block Rockwell Terrace 500 block Elm Street West All Saints Street Carroll Parkway (south side) between North Bentz/College Avenue College Avenue (east side), Carroll Parkway to West Patrick Street 200 block South Carroll Street from East South Street to Clark Place Water Street (east side) between East Patrick Street and Carroll Creek
Limitations: Subject to restrictions on areas where Residential Metered and Non-Metered Parking Permit holders may park as defined in subsection D of this document, a vehicle lawfully displaying a Residential Parking Permit may park any day of the week without further charge for a period of time not to exceed forty-eight (48) hours within the defined area in any lawful parking space.
A vehicle displaying the proper Residential Parking Permit (metered and non-metered) is not required to move every two (2) hours. But, the permit holder of a vehicle displaying a Residential Parking Permit (metered and non-metered) must still comply with all other applicable local, state, or federal laws including, but not limited to, garbage and street sweeping nights and special events.
Visitors Permits – A resident of streets listed above may obtain a visitor permit in the form of a hang tag for those times when a guest will be staying and they wish to park their vehicle on the street. The resident may obtain the hang tag in advance of the visitors’ arrival if necessary. The resident will need to visit the Parking Office and present the following: address where vehicle will be parked, tag number of vehicle to be parked and duration of stay. The cost is determined by the street being metered or non-metered. The cost for a metered street is $1.00 per hour or $8.00 per day, $2 per hour or $16 per day on the 1st block of East and West Church St. The cost for a non-metered street is $1.00 per day. There is a $4.00 deposit of both and this deposit will be refunded upon return of the hang tag after the visitor stay is concluded. All vehicles still need to adhere to the restriction for street sweeping/trash pickup night as posted for each street.
Resident permits – Note: If you area resident permit holder and your car is damaged or rendered inoperable for any other reason and you need a temporary permit for a rental car etc. please call the Parking office at 301-600-1429 for assistance.
Residential Parking Permit Application
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A citizen compliment or complaint causes the police to examine the service we provide to our community and make the necessary improvements in the way we provide those services.
When you send us a compliment it lets us know we are doing a good job and helps us recognize those officers and civilians for the excellent work they do.
When you send us a complaint we can examine our procedures and practices and improve our service.
If I file a complaint what happens?
Your complaint will be documented on a complaint form and if it is not resolved immediately it will be assigned for an inquiry. If it is determined to be a minor violation it will remain an inquiry; if it is considered a violation that may lead to discipline it will be assigned to a supervisor or the Internal Affairs Unit and investigated. The investigation will be reviewed by the chain of command to determine any action taken. You will be notified of the status of your complaint.
Your complaint will have no impact on any charges placed against you. Criminal and traffic charges must be resolved by the courts.
Compliment/Complaint Reception Form
During the initial assessment by the Street Maintenance Superintendent, or applicable designees, to determine the type and magnitude of impending weather, a dialogue is started with the On Duty Supervisor of the City Police. If there is sufficient information, (i.e. forecast of large accumulation of snow, poor driving conditions, whenever Frederick County or declared an emergency, etc.), it will be passed along the chain of command for both the City Police and the Department of Operations. Once a recommendation to implement the Snow Emergency Plan has been made the Deputy Director of Operations, or applicable designees, with the approval of the Mayor, shall initiate the Snow Emergency Policy.
Upon receiving approval, the Public Works Department shall notify the Public Information Officer (PIO) via cell phone and email, who will in turn contact the local media, including the local radio station, the Frederick News Post, Cable Channel 99, and the local TV stations. The notice provided to the media shall include the time the Snow Emergency will take effect, which will be at least 2 hours after the Notice has been given to the media. Any other relevant facts, such as parking restrictions, driving restrictions, etc, shall also be provided upon declaring the Snow Emergency.
After the Snow Emergency has been declared, citizens will have two hours to remove their vehicles from snow emergency routes within the City limits. After the two hour period, the Police Department will initiate enforcement, which could include a parking citation and removal of cars remaining on snow emergency routes. Enforcement and removal of vehicles will be coordinated between Public Works and the Police Department. After the need for the Snow Emergency has been eliminated, the Department of Public Works will notify the PIO, who will in turn notify the media.
Should the Mayor be unavailable, The Mayor's designee will assume the duties to approve the declaration of a Snow Emergency.
During the declaration of a Snow Emergency, and on streets designated as Snow Emergency Routes in this Snow Plans, there shall be No Parking allowed. Any vehicles parked on these streets may be towed at the owner's expense. Also, snow tires or chains will be required on any vehicles traveling on these routes
The intent of salting first is to ensure that a brine layer forms, which minimizes the amount of ice that accumulated on the streets. We almost without fail salt all the streets first to ensure the brine layer is in place.
To salt it takes anywhere from five to seven hours depending on road and traffic conditions. We almost always complete the salting before plow operations begin. Additionally, the city utilizes trucks that both apply salt and plow, so it would be impossible in most instances to do both at the same time.
(a) Public nuisance. The mayor and board of aldermen hereby declare that an accumulation of snow or ice on public sidewalks is a public nuisance and creates an emergency situation. Within twelve (12) hours after snow stops falling, a person owning or occupying a lot or part of a lot abutting a city sidewalk shall remove the snow and ice from the abutting sidewalk for a width of four (4) feet, or the width of the sidewalk, whichever is less.
(b) Notice of violation. If the owner or occupant fails to remove the snow and ice as required by this section, the code official shall post a notice of violation in a conspicuous place on the property notifying the property owner or occupant to remove the snow and ice as required by this section.
(c) Municipal infraction. If the property owner or occupant fails to comply with the notice of violation within twenty-four (24) hours after its posting, the code official may issue a citation for a municipal infraction. The penalty for violation is a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100.00).
(d) Abatement. If the property owner or occupant fails to comply with the notice of violation within twenty-four (24) hours after its posting, the code official may cause the snow and ice to be removed. The costs of removal will be charged to the property owner and will be liens upon the property to be collected in the same manner as municipal taxes are collected.
(e) Administrative appeal. A property owner may appeal a notice of violation within five (5) working days of the posting of the notice of violation by filing a written notice of appeal, stating the grounds for the appeal, with the code official. The filing of a notice of appeal does not stay any enforcement action. Upon receipt of a notice of appeal, the code official shall schedule a hearing before the building code appeals board and shall notify the property owner of the date and time of the hearing. At the hearing, the property owner may present witnesses and other evidence and may cross-examine witnesses. The city has the burden of showing by a preponderance of the evidence that this section has been violated. The building code appeals board may affirm the action of the code official or reverse the action based upon a finding that (1) this section has been incorrectly interpreted; or (2) that the condition described in the notice of violation did not exist or did not constitute a violation of this section. In reversing the action being appealed, the building code appeals board shall order that any applicable charge assessed by the city be nullified.
(f) Judicial review. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the building code appeals board may, within ten (10) days of the decision, file a petition for judicial review in the circuit court for Frederick County in accordance with the Maryland Rules applicable to judicial review of administrative agency decisions.
(Ord. No. G-08-1, § 1, 1-3-08)
Editor's note— Ord. No. G-08-1, adopted January 3, 2008, repealed and reenacted § 22-16 which pertained to removal of snow and ice from sidewalks and derived from Ord. No. G-94-82, § 1, 11-17-94.
Sec. 22-16.1. - Placing snow in public way.
(a) A person may not plow, shovel, or otherwise deposit snow or ice onto a public street or sidewalk. Violation of this section is hereby declared to be a municipal infraction punishable by a fine not to exceed five hundred dollars ($500.00).
(b) A person violating this section and the owner of any property from which the snow or ice originated are jointly and severably liable for any costs incurred by the City in (1) removing the snow or ice; and (2) repairing any damage to City property that results from the violation.
(Ord. No. G-82-12, § 1, 7-8-82; Ord. No. G-11-01, § I, 1-6-11)
There are many products, which are locally available. See local retail outlets for details.
Basically, the speed monitoring system is a radar device that measures the speed of every vehicle that passes by. Vehicles found to be exceeding the speed limit by at least 12 miles per hour will be captured electronically and by digital image. That violation information is then sent for a preliminary check to make sure that all of the equipment was operating properly, and to obtain registration information on the violating vehicle. Once that is completed, the violation is sent to the police department for review. If the reviewing police employee approves the violation, a violation notice is then sent to the vehicle owner.
In order to have trees planted owners must go through an application process via the Parks Division or the Parks Division website. Once applications are received at the address posted on the application the property will be inspected by an authority from the Parks Division. During this inspection the authority will assess if there is space available and no utility conflicts for the planting of a tree.
After the property has been inspected the Parks Division will make the determination if a tree can be planted while keeping up with efforts to ensure public safety and reduce maintenance costs for the City of Frederick.
Permanent borders or built-up planters around trees are not allowed. They are a trip hazard and cause undesirable root growth.
Note: Residents as well as professional arboricultural companies are not allowed to prune any public right-of-way tree without the permission/authority of the City of Frederick
If you have any other questions about the right of way trees, please contact the City of Frederick Arborist at (301) 600-1233.
It is not the responsibility of the City Surveying and Mapping Division to survey private property.
Contact the settlement company that provided your settlement services or use the Links page to search the Maryland Records online.
Contact any Maryland licensed Property Line or Professional Land Surveyor.
Speak with your neighbor and contact a Maryland licensed Property Line or Professional Land Surveyor.
The City does not survey private property. Contact a Maryland licensed Property Line or Professional Land Surveyor for this service.
The person(s) whose property is damaged would file a claim with his or hers insurance company, no matter who owns the tree. A typical homeowner's policy will pay to repair the damage to the structure and contents subject to the policy provisions. Your insurer will pay for removal of the tree; however, the cost for removal of the tree is typically limited per tree or per event. This Is typically referred to as debris removal coverage in your homeowner's policy.
Also keep in mind that the typical homeowner's policy will not provide coverage to replace any tree that was damaged/destroyed by wind. Debris removal coverage is also typically available for those circumstances when a tree falls and blocks the homeowner's driveway or handicap entrance/exit. If your insurer believes that any party (neighbor or city) has any liability due to the property damage, the insurer will subrogate against the other parties.
The same rules apply. However, if the tree belongs to the city, falls but doesn't cause damage, contact the city. The city may take care of or assist with the clean-up and may decide to replace the tree.
Even if the tree was dead and the owner knew it, the same answer as above would apply with respect to filing a claim with your insurance company. If your insurer believes that any party (neighbor or city) has any liability due to the property damage, the insurer will subrogate against the other parties.
Talk to your neighbor to see if the tree can be trimmed or removed before damage.
The following can be set out:
The following cannot be set out: